The Twelve Latter Prophets Series

Lesson Number

Class Date


The Twelve 76 Sep 12, 18

[2018 Pastor Summit report: Ministry in the age of Gender Confusion.] Elijah the Messenger (Mal 3:1; 4:5). If it was foretold that John the Baptist would minister in the spirit and power of Elijah (Lk 1:17), and if all the Gospel writers linked John to Malachi's prophecy (e.g., Mk 1:2), and if he shared characteristics germane to Elijah—was John, indeed, Elijah, or was he an Elijah-like figure? When asked, why did John say he was not Elijah (Jn 1:21). With the Jewish rejection of Jesus as Messiah, so too was the removal of John’s identification as Elijah ( Mt 11:14).
End of Series.

The Twelve 75 Sep 5, 18

The Day of the Lord & God's Messenger [Mal 4:5]. The day of the Lord entails both a time of judgment (Joel 1:15) and a time of blessing (Ob 17ff); sometimes its references are historical, other times eschatological. As a major theme of prophecy, the day of the Lord can refer to the Tribulation, Christ's second coming, or the Millennium, and is linked to the new heavens and earth (1 Pet 3:10f). Tracing through passages in the Gospels, how do we understand John the Baptist's role as it relates to Elijah (Mt 11:14, 17:11f; Lk 1:17)?

The Twelve 74 Aug 29, 18

Malachi 4:4-6. Conclusion: God's Warning Regarding the Great Day of the Lord. In his final words to the people, the prophet exhorts them to remember the Mosaic Law and obey it. To prepare the nation for this great and dreadful day, the Lord will send a herald, whose message is designed to cause spiritual faithfulness. If the hearers do not turn, they will be placed under the Lord's judgment. God's faithful love for Israel is unchanging; His promises and character, immutable.

The Twelve 73 Aug 15, 18

Malachi 4:1-3. Warnings and Promises. As an encouragement to the faithful remnant, Malachi elaborates on the day of the Lord—an imminent future day when God's overpowering judgment will burn up the wicked on the earth like stubble, utterly destroying them. Conversely, those who have feared the Lord—faithful and obedient believers—shall be healed; they shall be set free from oppression and shall be victorious over the wicked.

The Twelve 72 Aug 15, 18

Malachi 3:13-18. This sixth contention addresses three categories: the disobedient Jews, the godless Gentiles, and the faithful remnant. In a covenantal relationship with God, the disobedient Jews expected to receive blessings. But not only were the Jews not being blessed, but the godless Gentiles were, and (it appeared) they were escaping God's justice. In contrast to these frustrated Jews were the faithful remnant—God's future treasured possession—who will be remembered and delivered. Whereas the righteous serve the Lord and are blessed, the wicked do not and are not blessed.

The Twelve 71 Aug 8, 18

PragerU video: "Make Men Masculine Again." New Testament Principles on Tithing and Giving: As believers fulfill their responsibility to give—with an attitude of joy and generosity—God will generously resupply them that they may continue to give (2 Cor 9:6-11; Php 4:10-19). Paul warns of greed's destructive snare (1 Tim 6:6-10). Malachi 3:13-14. In this sixth contention the people challenge God's faithfulness, speaking strongly against Him. Moreover they insolently complain that serving God is useless—what profit was it them?

The Twelve 70 Aug 1, 18

Psalm 31. Principles of Tithing reviewed. The NT follows the patterns of taxation and grace giving found in the OT. Under the Mosaic Law, it was a national responsibility to pay tithes; for those in the church, it is a believer's responsibility to pay taxes to the government (Rom 13:1-7). Jesus demonstrated the obligation to pay taxes when He was questioned about the temple tax (Mt 17:24-27) and whether to pay taxes to Caesar (22:15-22). Is there a requirement in the NT to give? If so, how much? Those with the spiritual gift of giving should give generously (Rom 12:8).

The Twelve 69 Jul 25, 18

Malachi 3:6-12 reviewed: The Fifth Contention. Though the Israelites were unfaithful to God (having neglected the mandated tithes), God challenged the people to test His faithfulness: if they would obediently give in faith what was due to the Lord, He would faithfully give to them abundant provisions. The Mosaic Law prescribed three main tithes, which expressed the people's gratitude and supported the worship system (Num 18:21), the national feasts (Deut 14:22f), and the needy (Deut 14:28f).

The Twelve 68 Jul 18, 18

Malachi 3:9-12. Under the Mosaic Law, Israel was required to tithe—a mandate that if violated would result in divine discipline (Deut 30). God challenged the nation to cease from robbing Him and to return to obeying Him. In turn He would pour out abundant blessings—blessing that have been postponed until the Millennium. As Lord of the harvests, God promised to sovereignly prevent crop failure. The other nations will recognize His blessings on this land of delight.

The Twelve 67 Jul 11, 18

Malachi 3:6-8. The Fifth Contention: Israel's Tithes and Offerings (with points of application for Church Age believers). God's character does not change nor are His promises revocable; thus the LORD meted out mercy for Israel. The nation’s unfaithfulness and disregard for the Mosaic Law was made manifest in thievery—robbing God in tithes and offerings designed to support their worship. As God's bondservants, Christians must not neglect their relationship with Him: prayer, Bible reading, service, and giving (2 Cor 9:6-8) are integral to the spiritual life.

The Twelve 66 Jun 27, 18

Malachi 3:2-5: The Fourth Contention. Certain Bible passages point to the baptism by John (Mt. 3:11a), some to the baptism by the Spirit (Acts 2:4), and still others to a future baptism by fire at the second coming of Christ (Isa 4:4; Mt. 3:11b). The judgment at the Lord's return will cleanse out the unfaithful and purify the Levites, making Israel's worship acceptable. Contrary to what Malachi's audience believed—questioning the character of God, the Lord will be swift in judgment on those who do not fear Him. Can the Old Testament’s use of "alien" be compared to America's illegal alien?

The Twelve 65 Jun 20, 18

Malachi 2:17-3:1 begins the fourth contention. The Jews have "wearied" the LORD by challenging His character and questioning His justice. With a hint of foreboding, Malachi assures them that the Lord is indeed coming and will be preceded by His messenger (John the Baptist). Named the Messenger of the covenant, the Lord is the One who will initiate the New Covenant (Jer 31:31-34; Matt 26:28). A future fulfillment of the blessing portion of the Abrahamic Covenant, the New Covenant has eight provisions, discussed in this lesson.

The Twelve 64 Jun 13, 18

Marriage and Divorce. An examination of Malachi 2:16's use of personal pronouns followed by a word study for "hate" (Hebrew: sane) results in a corrected translation. The man who rejects his wife and divorces her acts treacherously. Jesus taught the marriage principle (Matt 19:3ff): God made man and woman one, thereby creating a new loyalty that should not be broken. Elaborating further, Paul’s address in 1 Cor 7:10-16 includes believers married to unbelievers. Does God permit exceptions to the rule of no divorce?

The Twelve 63 Jun 6, 18

God's Attitude Toward Divorce. Is Malachi 2:16 a prohibition against divorce? There are four predominate Christian views on marriage and divorce. To the one extreme is no divorce and no remarriage; on the other, divorce and remarriage under a variety of circumstances. Both Ezra 10:11 and Deut 24:1 demonstrate that divorce was authorized—the latter permitting remarriage. In response to the Pharisees' question about divorce (Mt 19:3ff), Jesus returned to the original design for marriage—husband and wife remaining as one, but divorce was also permitted because of their incorrigible sin natures.

The Twelve 62 May 30, 18

Malachi 2:10-16 reviewed (The Third Contention). This passage focuses on the stability and security of the nation, which for Israel as well as America depends on the first three divine institutions. Marriage must be held as a sacred covenant, the standard for which is a divine absolute. Though painful, destructive, and costly, divorce is by no means a failure beyond God's forgiveness. His grace enables the believer to recover and advance toward spiritual maturity. Parable of the Lost Son (Lk 15:11-32)—a picture of God's love and forgiveness toward the repentant believer.

The Twelve 61 May 23, 18

Malachi 2:10-16. The Third Contention reviewed and concluded. Considered the most difficult verse in the book to translate, 2:15 is in reference to what? Is Malachi's use of "one" representative of marriage or the nation? Formed as one, Israel was to serve God as His representative nation to the rest of the world; but how, if the men were unfaithful in marriage? Godly couples producing godly children are foundational for a godly nation. Conversely, destroy the covenant of marriage, and the nation will be destroyed.

The Twelve 60 May 16, 18

Malachi 2:10-14. The Third Contention, continued. What are the three senses of "cut off" in the Old Testament and which is being applied to the men in Malachi's address? The first charge: they were marrying idolatrous women; secondly, they were divorcing their Jewish wives in order to do so. To the temple went the men with their offerings, and the women with their prayers of sorrow. By breaking the marriage covenant, these husbands had dealt treacherously, and their offerings were unacceptable to the Lord.

The Twelve 59 May 9, 18

Malachi 2:10-12: The Third Contention. Marriage is an institution of God, unifying man and woman into one flesh; destroy family unity and spiritual failure will follow. Malachi denounces the Hebrew men who, in direct violation of the Mosaic Law (Deut 7:3), were marrying pagan women devoted to false gods—thus defiling God’s holiness and profaning the nation Israel. The man who committed the sin of intermarriage further condemned himself by bringing an offering to the Lord, as if to please Him.

The Twelve 58 May 2, 18

Malachi 2:5-9. The Levites were responsible for teaching the law of truth, which would produce lives of peace and fear for God. Ministering as the Lord's messengers, the priests were to preserve knowledge and to be examples of obedience; but they had become wayward. Having departed from righteousness and impartiality, the Levites caused many to stumble at God’s instruction. Because they dishonored God, He dishonored them. It isn't just the priests of Malachi's day who needed to be careful, but those who teach and handle the word of God today.

The Twelve 57 Apr 25, 18

Malachi 2:1-4: God Requires the Faithful Teaching of His Word. Responsible for teaching and intercessory prayer, the priests were also to lead in proper worship. The Lord warned the priests, who had no intention of giving Him glory, that they needed to hear and obey Him. It was a blessing for the Levites to serve, but if they did not change their inward hearts, God would send them a curse. Doctrine of Dung in the Face: like the excrement of animal sacrifices that was to be discarded outside the city, so too the defiled priests would be destroyed.

The Twelve 56 Apr 18, 18

Malachi 1:9-14. Guilty of bringing defiled offerings, the Israelites were told to seek God's favor. Instead of pleasing Him and thus positioning themselves to receive blessings, the nation qualified for cursings. God would turn to the Gentiles to receive proper worship because Israel had failed to serve as His representative to the nations. The priests were profaning God's name and considered their work drudgery. Divine punishment awaited those who despised the worship of God.

The Twelve 55 Apr 11, 18

Malachi 1:6-8. Context reviewed: God promised to bless Israel above all nations if they were obedient (Lev 26:2; Dt 28:1ff). Malachi rebukes the returned exiles: instead of worshipping the Lord according to His standards, the priests were showing indifference and contempt by offering inferior sacrifices. The Lord challenges them with a series of rhetorical questions. God deserves our best; when we give Him less, we dishonor Him.

The Twelve 54 Apr 4, 18

Malachi 1:2-5. By comparing Israel to other nations, God's love is evidenced to the struggling Israelites: inimical Edom would not be rebuilt despite her intentions, but Israel survives and is restored. Do nations have self-determination? As per the Abrahamic Covenant, a nation that is hostile toward Israel will be cursed, but a nation that is a blessing will be blessed—a fact which the Founders understood. God's possession Israel also must be obedient to receive His blessings.

The Twelve 53 Mar 28, 18

Malachi 1:1-3. Review of God's selection of Jacob over Esau (i.e., Israel over Edom). Doctrine of anthropopathism/–morphism expanded. The passibility vs. impassibility of God: Is God capable of emotions? How do we know that God didn't hate Esau? God's character, including His righteousness, love, and immutability is the key to understanding His relationship to mankind.

The Twelve 52 Mar 7, 18

In Mal 1:2-3, what do love and hate mean contextually and theologically? Was God's love for Jacob emotional, and did He despise Esau? Unlike to any other nation, God revealed His love to Israel through either blessings or judgments. Although he began with poor character, Esau grew spiritually and received God's blessings. Hatred is being used to mean a lesser degree, as Jacob loved Leah less than Rachel. Metonymy, anthropopathism and –morphism defined.

The Twelve 51 Feb 28, 18

Mal 1:1-3. Malachi's message to the unfaithful Israelites was one primarily of rebuke and condemnation. The remnant from Babylon, unaware of the enormity of their departure from the Lord's will, was insensitive to God's great love for them, and responded with contradiction and argumentation. In the same way that Jacob had chosen Rachel over Leah (Gen 29:31), so God had selected the nation Israel and was committed to them.

The Twelve 50 Feb 21, 18

Introduction continued. Overview of Israel's history with timeline from the Exodus to Messiah's birth. Similarities between Nehemiah's reforms and Malachi's messages. In order to receive covenantal blessings, the postexilic community and unfaithful priests needed to address their sins involving temple worship, divorce and remarriage, tithes, and trusting in God's love and future promises. Malachi predicted the coming of Christ and His forerunners, and also warned of the great day of the Lord.

The Twelve 49 Feb 14, 18

Introduction to Malachi. With the rebuilding of the temple completed, the Jews slumped into spiritual disobedience. Malachi voiced six disputations against the people's sins and unfaithfulness, including intermarriages and corrupt priests. ~400 years of silence followed his messages until the entrance of John the Baptist. Mysterious Malachi: is the book's author anonymous or is Malachi the prophet's proper name? Since there are no recorded dates, what internal evidence is there to support its time of composition (~420 BC)? Malachi Intro Slides. and Latter Prophets Graphic.

The Twelve 48 May 4, 17

Hag 2:10-23. 3rd & 4th Msgs. Hag questions the priests regarding clean vs. unclean as an illustration of the people's selfish spiritual attitude. B/c of their disobedience, God withheld blessings which didn't return until they acted in faithfulness. Prophecy for Zerubbabel: thru his line the future Messiah will come. Z's lineage traced thru Jesus' genealogies in Mt 1 & Lk 3.

The Twelve 47 Apr 27, 17

Haggai background & ch 1 review. 2nd Msg. 2:1-9. With only meager resources available, the rebuilt temple cannot compare to its former splendor; but the future millennial temple will be glorious. The Jews are commanded to be courageous, for the Lord's supportive presence assures their successful completion of the temple.

The Twelve 46 Apr 6, 17

Hag 1:1-15. Spiritually indifferent, the people have built their own elegant homes, but have neglected to build the house of the Lord. God causes their efforts at productivity to yield meager results in accordance with the Mosaic covenant. They must correct their priorities and resume temple construction for blessings to return. Haggai's exhortation is met with obedience.

The Twelve 45 Mar 30, 17

The setting for Hag 1:1 traced thru OT historical texts. Beginning w/Cyrus' edict for the return of Jewish exiles, to building the altar & laying the foundation under Zerubbabel, to multiple interruptions of opposition, to completion of the temple under Hag & Zec, and finally to the rebuilding of Jerusalem's walls under Nehemiah, we see how God works to restore the nation.

The Twelve 44 Mar 23, 17

Hag 1:1-8. Intro cont. After years of spiritual apathy the Jewish returnees have lost their drive to complete temple reconstruction. God uses the practical prophet to exhort Israel to prioritize rebuilding. Once God's interests were placed above their own, the curses would be removed and His blessings realized. Theological themes, unique characteristics & Messianic prophecy also covered.

The Twelve 43 Mar 9, 17

Intro to Haggai. This 1st of the post-exilic prophets delivered 4 messages to the discouraged Jews of Jerusalem in 520 BC. The Temple awaited completion while the people slacked, prioritizing their own self-serving interests and neglecting their spiritual lives. Hag exhorted the returnees to rebuild God's sanctuary and prepare for the Messiah's coming. Contemporaries: Zerub, Ezr, Zec.  Haggai Intro Slides.

The Twelve 42 Mar 2, 17

Hab 3:1-19. After learning that Judah is going to be destroyed, the humble prophet responds w/a prayer of praise. Drawing from past historical events that showcase God's majesty & power, Hab describes what he expects to follow this time of judgment—i.e., the Lord's return & restoration of Israel. Walking by faith in submission to God's authority places us above the circumstances of life & provides perfect stability.

The Twelve 41 Feb 23, 17

Hab 2:2-20. Review and Analysis of Five Woes for Babylon—violence, greed in plundering other nations, self-sufficiency, sexual degradation, and idolatry will cause this nation to face the wrath of God.

The Twelve 40 Feb 16, 17

Hab 1:12-2:20. Hab's 2nd Question & the Lord's Answer. Why would God allow such a wicked nation as Babylon to devour Judah who is more righteous? Judah pictured as helpless fish caught in the nets of idolatrous, insatiable Babylon (1:14ff). God wants us to bring our doubts & bewilderments to Him, and like the prophet we should expect & watch for the answer. God will take care of the righteous remnant who live by faith (2:4; cf Ro 1:17; Ga 3:11; He 10:38). The destruction of Babylon intimated in 5 woes: intimidation, intemperance, iniquity, indignity & idolatry. Hab needs to wait and keep silent; God is still in control; His righteousness & justice have not diminished.

The Twelve 39 Feb 9, 17

Jer 22:1-19. Sons of King Josiah warned (3 sons & 1 grandson reigned in Judah: Jehoahaz/Shallum→ Jehoiakim→ Jehoiachin→ Zedekiah). Hab 1:1-6. Habbakuk's day can be paralleled to our current nation: there is prosperity but also violence, injustice & intimidation, w/only a small, godly remnant remaining. Hab pours out his complaint to the LORD, as it appears He is unaware or indifferent. Far from being unconcerned or neglectful, sovereign God astonishes Hab that not only will He cause discipline upon Judah, but it will be the fierce & dreadful Chaldeans (Babylon), the impetuous nation that has defeated Assyria & Egypt!

The Twelve 38 Feb 2, 17

Hab—Date & Hist. Setting: After the reign of good King Josiah (640-609 BC/2 Ki 22:1-23:30), the SK under Jehoiakim (609-598/2Ki 23:24ff), reverts to covenant unfaithfulness. Assyria wanes in power while Babylon strengthens and in 605, soon after the battle of Carchemish, the 1st Jewish deportation occurs. Hab writes ~609-605 BC, prior to the Babylonian captivity. A righteous remnant remains in Judah, but the pervasive wickedness causes him to cry out to God. Despite dark days of injustice, Hab trusts the Lord and ends his book w/praise. (Contemporaries: Jer & Zeph.) Habakkuk Intro Slides 2

The Twelve 37 Jan 26, 17

Background to Habakkuk & timeline. Review of OT books & their placement in the Eng vs Heb canons. Themes: God is +R & Sovereign. Author & name covered. This pre-exilic, officially ordained prophet is unique in that rather than the Lord appearing to him w/an indictment, it was Hab who appealed to the Lord for divine judgment. Thru poetry, Hab dialogues w/God about injustice, both of Judah & Babylon. God, in His +R will execute justice; and the righteous shall live by their faithfulness to God.  Habakkuk Intro Slides

The Twelve 36 Dec 1, 16

Zeph 3:1-7; Jerusalem indicted for her wickedness. 3:8-20; deliverance in the day of the Lord for the righteous remnant. In the Millennium God will restore the nations to Himself and turn from wrath to blessing for Israel, including their return to the land under Messianic rule. God must punish sin, but He is full of mercy and is always true to His promises. God designed individual nations (not internationalism), for righteousness & the restraint of evil.

The Twelve 35 Nov 17, 16

Zeph 2:1-3; Call to Repentance. Judah urgently exhorted to seek the Lord's favor & mercy. Announcement of coming judgment coupled with the means of escape; God offers His grace before discipline & protects the faithful remnant. 2:4-15; Warnings of judgement upon nations surrounding Judah. 3:1-7; Judgement proclaimed against Jerusalem for disobedience, unfaithfulness & injustice. God's +R will be demonstrated by means of His +J.

The Twelve 34 Nov 10, 16

Zeph historical background: 2 Ki 23-24, Josiah's spiritual restoration and SK's subsequent decline. Zeph 1:7-13, description of God's judgment, picturing Judah as the sacrifice & Babylon the guest (586 BC). 1:14-18; Joe 2:1-11; Mt 24:29f, pronouncement of the Great Day of the Lord (end times/Tribulation).

The Twelve 33 Nov 3, 16

Intro cont; Zeph 1:1-6; God's pronouncement of judgment upon all the earth (end-time Tribulation), followed by impending judgment on Judah & Jerusalem (586 BC via Babylonians); 3 forms of idolatrous worship: star worshippers (Dt 4:15-24; 2 Ki 21:3; 23:4), syncretistic- combining worship of YHWH w/child sacrifice of Molech (2 Ki 16:3; 21:6; 23:10), and those who were indifferent & unfaithful in worshipping the Lord.

The Twelve 32 Oct 27, 16

Intro to Zephaniah: God's Judgment & Blessing; Historical background- finding a copy of the Law (2 Ki 21-23; 2 Ch 34); Zeph, great-great grandson of King Hezekiah, ministered to Judah during the early part of Josiah's reign, prior to the king's reforms to purge idolatry, ~630 BC. This pre-exilic prophet's message announced the Day of the Lord, emphasizing God's righteous judgment upon both Judah and Gentile nations, calling His people to repentance, and promising a future restoration. Zephaniah Intro PowerPoint Slides

The Twelve 31 Oct 20, 16

Na 3:1-19; theological themes of Nahum; reasons for God's judgment on Nineveh: merciless violence, treacherous deception, demonic practices, and brutal treatment of Thebians; the powerful & prosperous Assyrians will be shamed, fear-stricken, and defenseless under divine retribution; nations formerly abused by the nefarious Ninevites will rejoice at her demise.

The Twelve 30 Oct 13, 16

Na 2:1-2:13; Nahum's prophecy of Nineveh's terrifying defeat & subsequent plundering under the Medes & Babylonians; the Lord does not allow the wicked to escape punishment and He protects the faithful; history is controlled by God.

The Twelve 29 Oct 6, 16

Na 1:1-14; God's perfect character assures He will sovereignly execute vengeance on His enemies, while extending protection to those who take refuge in Him; Judah's time of Assyrian oppression to come to an end w/the fall of her enemy; God is faithful to His people and will protect & provide for us in times of adversity or distress.

The Twelve 28 Sep 29, 16

Intro to Nahum; theme- God avenges His people; written ~655 BC (during King Manasseh's reign) to comfort oppressed Judah that the guilty Assyrians will not go unpunished; oracle of God's judgment & complete destruction of Nineveh, which occurred 612 BC.  Nahum Intro PowerPoint Slides

The Twelve 27 Jun 2, 16

Micah 4:1-7:20; 2nd msg cont.- events preceding & characteristics of the coming kingdom; the unique superiority of Israel & her Ruler in the Millennium juxtaposed to the nation's current plight; 3rd msg- Israel put on trial & found guilty, sentenced to exile; sacrifice not desired but a change of deed & attitude; deceit, violence & unfaithfulness prevail, not to be outdone by God's promises of restoration & future blessing for the remnant.

The Twelve 26 May 26, 16

Micah 1:2-3:12; Rebuke, Judgment & Promise of Blessing; greedy and wealthy rulers steal from the defenseless; false prophets mislead with words of peace; refusing to heed Micah's warning of impending destruction, the people set themselves on rejecting God and pursuing injustice; future regathering of the remnant predicted.

The Twelve 25 May 19, 16

Intro to Micah: God's Justice & Future Restoration; ministered to both N&S kingdoms from ~742-690 BC; book arranged into 3 messages of judgment & hope; affluent but spiritually poor and corrupt; fall of Samaria & Jerusalem prophesied but also coming of Messiah; Mic 1:1-16 God's lawsuit against the nation followed by lament.

The Twelve 24 May 12, 16

Hosea 13:1-14:9; Ephraim's idols contrasted with YHWH's faithful provision; failing the prosperity test & forgetting God; from divine Helper to Destroyer; merciless Assyria as God's instrument of judgment; God's grace displayed in Ephraim's future return & restoration, free of idolatry; the wisdom of obeying God.

The Twelve 23 May 5, 16

Hosea 10:1-12:14 Interweaving themes: the sins of Ephraim & their rejection of God, the impending discipline to follow, urgent admonishment to return to the Lord & do righteousness, God's past love for the nation & His mercy in withholding the full measure of His wrath, and promises of yet future restoration.

The Twelve 22 Apr 28, 16

Hosea 8:1-9:17 Idolatrous Israel fails to function as a set apart nation; seeking succor not from the Lord but through foreign alliances; animosity towards the righteous; consequences for Northern Kingdom's disobedience- military defeat, hunger, captivity to Assyria, end of temple sacrifices & feasts, and decline in birth rate.

The Twelve 21 Apr 21, 16

Hosea 6:1-7:16 roster of Israel's sins continues esp. of rulers; God's holiness & faithfulness revealed in condemning Israel for her unfaithfulness to Him; the Lord exhorts the people to repent & return but they refuse.

The Twelve 20 Apr 7, 16

Hosea 3:1-5:15; Hosea redeems adulteress Gomer, analogous to God's unfailing love for Israel; the Lord charges Israel w/violating the Law; people, priest & prophet guilty of rejecting knowledge in favor of cult prostitution, idolatry, and drunkenness; Judah warned not to follow suit; divine judgment awaits both N & S kingdoms.

The Twelve 19 Mar 31, 16

Hosea 1:1-2:23, Millennial prophecies of national population growth, regeneration, restoration & reunion, leadership, and prosperity; God disowns Israel; Jos 7:24- Valley of Achor; failure to attribute blessings to God results in discipline and loss of prosperity; Je 31:31f - New Covenant.

The Twelve 18 Mar 24, 16

Hosea 1:1-9 intro, last prophet to NK ~755 BC; theme- God's redemptive love for Israel & faithfulness to the contract; marriage to Gomer represents Israel's sins, judgment & restoration; as Hosea loved Gomer who became unfaithful, so God covenanted w/Israel who became spiritually adulteress; children's names point toward divine judgment.

The Twelve 17 Mar 10, 16

Amos 8-9:10 Visions cont., Israel ripe for judgment, abuse of poor & needy, divine silence, discipline from Assyria inescapable under God's omniscient, sovereign hand; 9:11-15 millennial promises of future hope: divided Davidic dynasty to be reunited, land restored, regathering & return w/unprecedented prosperity.

The Twelve 16 Mar 3, 16

Amos 7:1-17 Visions of impending judgment: locusts, fire (famine), plumb line (God's standard); the Lord favorably answers Amos' two intercessory prayers for N.K; God desires we approach Him w/our petitions, Jas 5:13-18; rejection of the prophet leads to forecast of doom for Bethel's high priest; 1 Sa 10:5, 2 Ki 2:3.

The Twelve 15 Feb 25, 16

Amos 5:1-6:14 Impending funeral dirge announced to Israel w/offer of life for those who would seek the Lord; God always deals with us in grace; the injustice and lawlessness of Israel in Amos' day compared to present day America; Is 1:10-17 & Le 26:31 abominable offerings rejected, 5th level of discipline; trusting in false security.

The Twelve 14 Feb 18, 16

Amos 2:6-4:13 Israel's covenant violations: oppressing the poor, sexual immorality, religious hypocrisy, disregard for God's faithfulness; God's impending judgment via Assyria is inescapable; prior warning calamities to motivate a return to the Lord ignored.

The Twelve 13 Feb 11, 16

Amos 1:1-2:8, pronouncement of divine judgment upon surrounding Gentile nations, Judah & Israel, and their fulfillments; the nations that God used to discipline Israel will in turn receive judgment; Israel's immorality Ex 22:25-27, Le 18:6f,15, Dt 16:18-20, 24:10-13.

The Twelve 12 Feb 4, 16

Amos; The Judgment of God, 1 Ki 12:25ff, Am 7:10ff, Bethel's counterfeit religion; period of great prosperity coupled w/tremendous moral & spiritual decay; America's rejection of Biblical principles in favor of open immorality; Am 1:1-8, 2 Ki 8:7ff, 10:32f, 2 Ch 21:16f, 28:16ff, prophecy of destruction for Damascus & Philistia.

The Twelve 11 Jan 28, 16

Review- layout of OT books; Amos, herdsmen & fruit picker from Judah, ministered primarily to Israel (N. King) during Jeroboam II & Uzziah's reign; prophesied ~760 BC, God's righteous judgment against immorality and idolatry, predicted Assyrian invasion; 2 Ki 14:23-25, 15:1-6, 2 Ch 26:15-20, Am 1:1.

The Twelve 10 Dec 17, 15

Jon 3:10-4:11, Jer 18:5-10, 2 Pet 3:8,9 God's abounding mercy and patience to the Assyrians and the prophet vs Jonah's uncompassionate, anger. God has a plan for us but we think we know better and desire a change of circumstance, instead of changing our attitude. God's use of the plant to correct J's obstinate thinking.

The Twelve 9 Dec 3, 15

Jon 2:1-3:10, the problems we encounter are never too desperate for God to resolve; divine discipline used to make us more effective servants; warning of judgment - msg of grace; Nineveh's revival likely the greatest in human history

The Twelve 8 Nov 19, 15

Jon 1:1-3:1, super stubborn Jonah driven down to extremes before submitting to God's plan; Jonah a type of Israel- prophecy of the nation's past and future; God never abandons us even when we rebel and neglect Him, but works to turn us back to Him; holding our breath in His hands, Dan 5:23, Acts 17:25.

The Twelve 7 Nov 12, 15

Jonah 1:1-17, the negative, fleeing yet successful pigheaded prophet sent to the Gentiles; we don't know what's best for us, but God does and works to bring us into obedience; the ripple effect of our sin; the pagan mariners' nobility vs Jonah's obstinate refusal to obey; Mt 12:38-40 the giant fish- literal and historical.

The Twelve 6 Nov 5, 15

Four Types of Prophecy 1. literal prophecy w/literal fulfillment (Mic 5:2>Mt 2:6), 2. literal history w/typical fulfillment (Hos 11:1>Mt 2:15), 3. literal prophecy or historical, w/applicational fulfillment (Joel 2:28-31>Acts 2:16-21), 4. summary fulfillment (no OT quotation) - (Matt 2:23). Jonah: 780 BC, facts unique to this book.

The Twelve 5 Oct 22, 15

Joel: ch 1 divine discipline for disobedience; ch 2:1-11 tremble at the Tribulation- Is 13:9,10/Mt 24:29/Rev 6:1-13, 8:12; Jo 2:12 call to repentance; 2:28 start of the Millennium; 2:32 physical deliverance of the remnant (Rom 10:9,10); Jo 3:1 restoration of Israel at end of Trib and judgment on the nations; Ezk 36:22-24/Jer 23:3,8; Jo 3:18 picture of Millennium.

The Twelve 4 Oct 15, 15

Purpose of Joel - to exhort God's covenant people to return to faithfulness and to comfort Judah w/msg of ultimate restoration. Joel 2 and the Day of the Lord- includes future Tribulation, followed w/offer of repentance and then deliverance of the remnant. Acts 2:16-21 applicational fulfillment that the Day of Pentecost is similar to a portion of Joel's prophecy, but not literally fulfilled until the Millennium. No OT prophecy fulfilled during Church Age.

The Twelve 3 Oct 8, 15

Obadiah- Edom's destruction yet future; Joel- to S.Kingdom ~835 BC, ch 1 Day of the Lord as historical discipline on Judah; locust invasion a foretaste of eschatological Day of the Lord in ch 2 & 3, followed by Israel's restoration. 2 Ki 11:1-4, Deut 28:38, Joel 1 (slide presentation).

The Twelve 2 Oct 1, 15

Review of Israel's OT history w/layout of prophets; Obadiah- written to comfort Judah in
~845 BC concerning God's judgment on their enemy Edom [see also 2 Chron 21:8-10]; outworking of Abrahamic covenant, Israel's ultimate restoration in the Millennium; Day of the Lord. Overall theme - God is sovereign.

The Twelve 1 Sep 24, 15

Introduction: former and latter prophets; Hebrew Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim); chronological order of the 12; key dates in Israel's history (slide presentation).